Famous Optical Illusion Paintings: Who Created Op-Art? Optical Art Movement Idea
Often waking up, not yet regaining consciousness, being on the verge of dream and reality, a person thinks about whether what he just saw actually happened or just dreamed. The same sensations arise in the viewer viewing the work of optical illusion artwork and asking – where does the illusion end and reality begin?
Optical illusion art is one of the branches of geometric abstract art of the mid-twentieth century, which is based on optical illusions. Representatives of this style sought to create a movement effect on a flat surface through the use of color contrasts and geometric patterns. The brightest op-art artists are Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, Julian Stanchak, and Carlos Cruz-Diez.
Op Art History
Op-art has existed as an art movement since 1965 when The Responsive Eye exhibition was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Although, rather, it was already a moment of triumph, a meteoric rise in the popularity of “illusionist” paintings. For the first time, the term “art of illusion” was most likely used in 1964 by the artist and writer Donald Judd in a review of Julian Stanchak’s exhibition “Optical Paintings”.
Although, of course, the foundation for the emergence of optical illusion painting was laid several centuries before, at the time of the appearance of linear perspective in painting. And then art had to go a long way from bewildering “fake pictures” to the dizzying work of representatives of optical illusion designs. Cézanne’s color experiments, the Cubists ‘experiments with forms, and the obstructionists’ refusal of objectivity, and the simple geometric forms of Mondrian, Kandinsky, and Malevich, and the anti-art of the Dadaists played a role in its emergence. But it is believed that the simple geometry of the Bauhaus school and kinetic art had the strongest influence on the representatives of op-art.
Despite the fact that in 1933 the Bauhaus was closed by the National Socialists who came to power, his ideas continued to live in other schools, in particular in the USA and Hungary. The “father of op-art” Victor Vasarely received his art education at the Budapest school. The main task of kinetic art was to create real or illusory movement, mainly in the form of sculpture. Representatives of famous optical illusion paintings decided to go further and set themselves a non-trivial goal: to create the illusion of movement on a two-dimensional surface.
Optical Art Movement Idea
Optical art is the art of visual illusion. Op-art artists create their works, referring not to the aesthetic side of perception, but to the human mind.
After all, the image exists not only on canvas or paper but, first, it is formed in the viewer’s head. Illusions of vision that arise when perceiving a drawing made in op art definition allow us to turn ordinary flat images into moving, three-dimensional compositions.
- A game with alternating lines, circles, spheres, edges, segments and even colors transforms a simple drawing into a mysterious puzzle, the meaning of which you want to guess. The task of optical illusions street art is to deceive the eye, provoking it to a false reaction, which causes an image that is “non-existent” in reality.
- Particular attention in art and illusion is paid to the partnership between the artist and the viewer, where the viewer is a direct participant in what is happening and not just a passive contemplation.
Visual illusions do not depend on individual consciousness, culture, beliefs, and tastes of the individual, but the diversity of the vision of the picture, with its static and unchanging nature, allows you to preserve the variability of individual perception.
How Optical Illusions Lines Work
The secret of op-art works lies in the interaction between the retina of the eye. Certain patterns confuse this interaction, resulting in irrational optical effects. Generally speaking, such paintings can be divided into two broad categories. The first includes black and white works that create the effect of movement (rotation, vibration, flickering), which can even cause physical dizziness. The impact of works from the second category is based on an illusory image that occurs when looking at a particular color or color combination.
Since the inception of optical illusions’ definition, neuroscientists have tirelessly investigated how the human eye and brain perceive these puzzling pictures.
Fundamental to these studies is the idea that the human gaze is “attracted” to contrasting areas. The sharp boundaries between light and darkness attract attention and the perception of contrast is enhanced. For example, a black circle on a white background would appear darker than the exact same circle on a gray background.
Some representatives of basic optical illusions in their abstract compositions used centuries-old developments in the field of linear perspective to create illusory effects. When was op-art created? It is believed that the architect Filippo Brunelleschi invented the linear perspective back in 1415. This was the first mathematical method with which it turned out to “deceive” human vision.
Representatives of the illusion of motion in art were able to prove that it can be successfully applied in non-objective painting. Many of Victor Vasarely’s works can serve as classic examples of the use of traditional perspective in op-art. It creates the effect of depth and changing distance. Now you know who created op art.
The “collaboration” of neuroscientists and artists in the study of visual effects has turned out to be mutually beneficial. And despite the fact that they acted in completely different ways, their conclusions are very similar. The human visual system does not reflect the surrounding world like a mirror. Apparently, she is able to perceive much more than we think.
Op-Art Impact Technology
Visual illusions in the history of optical illusions are achieved by introducing rhythmic graphic repetitions, sharp color and tonal contrasts, the intersection of spiral and lattice configurations, and wriggling lines into the image.
- The setting of changing light and dynamic designs can enhance the effect of the impact. This replacement of the classical perspective with a multifocal vision of space makes it possible to create optical illusions, changing the plane perception of the picture.
- But everything that a person supposedly sees at this moment arises only in the sensations of the viewer. The illusion arises automatically as a result of a malfunction of the visual apparatus, excluding any possibility of a conscious interpretation of the picture.
Vasarely wrote about the 60s op art impact technology: “We do not rely on the heart, but on the retina; the subject’s sophisticated data are included in the psychological experiment.
Sharp black and white contrasts, unbearable vibration of complementary colors, the flickering of rhythmic grids and changing structures, optical kinetism of plastic components – all physical phenomena are present in our works; henceforth, their role is not to create a miracle, not to plunge us into sweet melancholy, to stimulate, to arouse wild joy in us. “
The art of optical illusions Op-art supporters create their own special world, unique works that have nothing to do with the surrounding reality but are distinguished by a hypnotic attraction that attracts the viewer.
History of illusions reveals to a person the beauty and expressiveness of a geometric pattern, which, despite its external clarity and immutability, allows a new look at the possibilities of ordinary forms and figures that can turn the surrounding space.
- To create their works, perspective illusions art masters often turn to not only brushes and paints, but they also use complex mechanisms, mirrors, and lenses, various materials that allow you to create amazing designs.
- Within the framework of op art characteristics, interesting installations that previously seemed “unclaimed” were created and are being created. For example, mobiles moving without mechanical force, invented by A. Rodchenko, or the optical effects of folded drawings by I. De Soto, applied to organic glass and, as a result of merging, creating the effect of a new space.
- The pronounced specificity of op-art, its potential, and resources allow using the possibilities for various purposes of a practical or scientific nature
- Interior and landscape design, industrial graphics, advertising, architecture, entertainment have become a vivid confirmation of the implementation of unusual projects and geometric illusion art forms.
After the first large exhibition dedicated to famous op artists, critics promised him a “quick death”, almost 50 years have passed, but the art of optical illusions is still deservedly popular, intriguing new fans of the genre with the developing possibilities of this direction.
The traditional Schroeder staircase is a two-dimensional picture that has two interpretations: the staircase seen from above and the staircase seen from below, and the second interpretation can be easily perceived if the painting is turned upside down.
The 3D object also has two interpretations, both of which are stairs seen from above, and the interpretations switch from one to the other when we rotate the object 180 degrees around the vertical axis.
Tapioca Tactile Illusion
If you make a round hole in a piece of cardboard, squeeze it on both sides with your fingers, twist, and move it, you would feel like a rubber ball.
An example of a classic illusion where the environment affects objects. Here, for example, a moving frame makes one believe that ladybugs are moving, even though they are in place all the time.
Illusion of Sunbeams
Another interesting illusion was revealed by researchers from New York University. She shows that when people see intersecting ring-shaped shapes, most of them would feel that rays radiate from the center, similar to those seen when looking at the sun.
Pseudo X-ray Vision
Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the way to see through the skin using X-rays at the end of 1895. Now, in 2020, scientists in Japan have discovered that this technology can be easily replicated by simply shining light on the surface of the hand, which would reflect to other objects. Who hasn’t dreamed of handles instead of fingers?
The Illusion of the Transparent Knife
This is the illusion that a regular knife looks transparent when placed in the middle of the tines of a fork. Even if the knife reflects other nearby objects, the appearance of the fork still makes the knife appear transparent.
What could be better than an accidentally spotted optical illusion? Only an illusion created intentionally and desirable by scientists. These are really created every year and even get into various ratings and receive prizes. We show you a rating, which, unlike illusions, is the real one and is carried out by the International Society for the Study of Illusions.
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